For several years now, I've been using IP addresses and ports to access services that I run on my home server. However, I decided it was time to switch to using a domain instead. I had heard about Traefik and Caddy in r/HomeServer and r/homelab and chose to try out Traefik, mainly because it had native support for Docker labels.
The first few steps involved installing Traefik with Docker, adding HTTPS support
through Let's Encrypt, and reconfiguring my web containers to use it. The next step
was to add a dnsmasq rule to my Pi-hole
so that all requests would be redirected to the subdomain I chose (I used
as the base host in Traefik). However, on my Mac, I'm not always using my Pi-hole's
DNS, usually when I need to circumvent the ad-blocking. I accomplish this through
macOS' native support for network locations.
After doing a bit of research, I found out I could use dnsmasq on my Mac to do accomplish wildcard subdomains, just like I did on the Pi-hole, and it worked wonderfully once I got it to work.
I used Homebrew to install and configure dnsmasq:
brew install dnsmasq. I then opened the configuration file for dnsmasq from its
/usr/local/etc/dnsmasq.conf and added the line below. If you changed
the location of your Homebrew install, run
brew --prefix, then replace
with the value.
This line configures the routing, and redirects all requests made to
servername.mydomain.com and its subdomains to
10.90.100.1. Make sure to replace
10.90.100.1 with the IP you want to redirect to. If you're interested in knowing
why dnsmasq redirects all redirects to both the base domain and its subdomains to
the IP, this Stack Overflow answer
To start dnsmasq, run
sudo brew services start dnsmasq. Homebrew will handle autostarting
the daemon and ensuring it stays alive. I found this to be simpler than the common
method of copying the Homebrew launch daemon plist
/Library/LaunchDaemons and manually telling
launchctl to load it.
If you were to try running a command such as
ping to see if your wildcard subdomain
redirection worked, you'd be sorely disappointed, because there are two more steps.
Create a folder in
resolver, and place a file in there. The file
can be named anything, but I like to use the hostname of my computer. In that file,
nameserver 127.0.0.1. This tells macOS' DNS resolution to use your new dnsmasq
as a DNS server. For example, I would run
sudo mkdir /etc/resolver, then
sudo bash -c 'echo "nameserver 127.0.0.1" > /etc/resolver/my-computer-hostname'.
Verify that the entry was added with
scutil --dns. An output similar to the following
should be shown.
resolver #8 domain : my-computer-hostname nameserver : 127.0.0.1 flags : Request A records, Request AAAA records reach : 0x00030002 (Reachable,Local Address,Directly Reachable Address)
After that, add the DNS server to macOS via the Network panel in System Preferences
or the Wi-Fi panel in System Settings. If your Mac is running Ventura or newer,
click "Details", otherwise click "Advanced". Then, navigate to the "DNS" tab. Click
the plus button and type in
127.0.0.1 and then hit enter. For more information
127.0.0.1, check out its Wikipedia article.
Back to System Preferences, click the OK button, then click Apply. If you're running
Ventura or newer, just click the OK button and it will save and apply the settings.
Once the icon is disabled and greyed out, flush your DNS cache. You can do that
sudo dscacheutil -flushcache and
sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder. Now,
ping command again, and you should get a response. If it does, try accessing
the service through your browser.
If you have any questions or need any help, feel free to contact me on Twitter or Mastodon.
I hope that this article is useful for you! Thank you for reading!